Hornos (pronounced "or no") are traditional pueblo, beehive shaped, adobe ovens.   Unlike large earthenwear chimineas, which are movable, hornos are massive and fixed, so, be sure it's where you want it when you start to build.   While they are sometimes refered to as kiva fireplaces, (no one knows why, hornos are outdoor structures never found in kivas) this is a misnomer.   Often benches, braziers, storage, work areas, etc, will be attached to an horno.   Used mostly for baking and roasting, other cooking can take place at the opening while the horno is being fired.   A fire is built inside allowing the thick adobe chamber to absorb heat.   After two or three hours coals are removed to a nearby brazier for other use or to reheat the oven as needed.   Whatever is to be baked or roasted is place in the oven and the smokehole and doorway sealed.   An horno can maintain a useable, though slowly dropping, temperature for several hours.
This is a hands on (and in) workshop teaching the construction, operation, and maintaince basics of adobe beehive ovens or hornos.   By the end of the workshop you should be able to build your own horno.   Instruction will leave you with an understanding clear as mud on the following topics.
Time requirements:   two weekends or one week.   Actual oven construction time depends on number of participants; usually about 15-20 hours if the adobe bricks are pre-made.   The rest of the time is required for prep and drying.   The result is an horno with an approximate 3 ft. interior diameter and a 5-6 ft. height.   Last day consists of first firing and baking of bread.
-   A brief history of adobe beehive ovens in the southwest (and other adobe structures).
-   Materials and proportions for good adobe.
-   Mixing adobe to the proper consistancy for its intended use.
-   Making adobe brick.
-   Planning of a well constructed horno.
-   Choosing and preparing the site for an adobe oven.
-   Tools for trimming, laying, and mortaring of adobe brick.
-   Forming the rough structure and vaulted beehive dome.
-   Rounding the rough edges and scratch-coat adobe plastering.
-   Fitting of horno door and smoke-hole stone.
-   Finishing plaster and smoothing; adobe vs. stucco.
-   Firing the adobe oven.
-   Horno cooking and baking.
Make the stylish appeal of an authentic southwest horno the centerpiece of your outdoor entertaining. The charm and ambiance of an attractive patio fireplace combined with the utility of a functional adobe oven. Bake bread, roast a turkey, have a party, enjoy a quiet evening. Your choice of low maintance stucco finish or traditional adobe plaster.   A pile of dirt never looked so good.
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